Creating High Performance Learning Environments

Project based learning lesson

The first video surrounding project based learning with Donna Migdol, is the most valuable for me. I try to bring more project based learning to my science classes. However, I’ve been learning on the job with very few resources and little in the way of established curriculum.

Migdol’s methods for creating iterative design are so important to the creative and learning possesses. I had an “ah-ha” moment when I saw two things she did. The first was stretching the projects over several days, and the second was student centered feedback on the progress of their projects.

Besides my twice yearly science fair, the other projects I’ve put in the class have been very guided and typically completed in a single lesson. Sometimes this is effective for certain project but I’m not taking enough advantage of iterative processes. As Migdol pointed out, she is able to treat student guided feedback as a sort of formative assessment. Wonderful! I need to take the time do this in my classroom. I’ve also put in place a note taking policy this year so the “chiming” and note taking will work well.
Coming from my own software writing prospective, iteration is everything. Removing the fear of failure and providing the opportunity for feedback is imperative for any creative work. A great example of this is the marshmallow tower challenge.

In the contest, groups of people must build the tallest tower possible with a limited number of dry spaghetti noodles and a marshmallow on top in a limited frame of time. Comparative studies of MBA to students versus young children found that on average groups of young children outperformed the average business student groups. This was due largely to the propensity for planning and debate in the business groups while the young built, rebuilt, rebuilt, and rebuilt. Perhaps their elders had been taught to avoid failure to a point of negative returns.

Migdol also uses simulators on computers. I also do this. They are great for providing a safe sandbox for an idea. Also no fear of failure here. One thing I should point out is her great use of classroom space when using the simulators. She place the students against the wall for this individual work. It’s very useful for keeping students focused and observing the students’ work. I only have this luxury in one of our classrooms where I, unfortunately, don’t teach very often.

You can find a batch of wonderful science simulators at:

She also makes great use of the idea that limited options make for more creative students. Not only is this smart for the budget, but it’s also a truism in my own experience. I dual majored in art, and in new situations where we had limited resources my work was more consistent. I, by the way, was a better science major… oh well, all’s well. In any case, I think I might switch a few or Migdol’s few supply choices. Sand paper and rubber strips are not the most effective demonstration of friction when handling a metallic rolling object. It’s unlikely that the students would come upon the few ways they might use them effectively, as anything more than an obstruction.

I don’t really care for the idea of slotting kids into roles within their groups, but I love the use of active recording and reflecting on the process. It would be helpful in my ESL classroom. I could make it part of the note taking.

Chinese math lessons

Wow, a Chinese lesson I can actually understand. 一二三! I so smart!… Okay, I’m not a linguistic master. I believe this is a great example of Chinese education at it’s best… and worst. This sort of Chinese teaching is sort of a mastered art and many of the techniques are difficult to implement outside of this style. It would be easy to criticize individual components of the style, but you have to look at it as whole, what it does, and where it does it.

It is perhaps an oversimplification to say that Chinese education is for memorization and procedure. Yet, it is good at those things. In some subjects, memorization is an excellent part of mastery. And is half of the creative process. The kinds techniques seen in that video, with the kids acting as a unified orchestra, are effective in producing students who can artfully execute certain tasks. But this shouldn’t, I my opinion, come at the detriment of the other half of creativity, the wide and deep thinking of connecting ideas.

Additionally in the article, it’s pointed out that the teacher does attempt to address critical thinking. She does this by placing problems in scenarios or case testing them. But the method for doing them seems to be limited call and response or quizzing with the students. And as the article points out it seems that there is the same sort of pressure to teach to the test in China. In fact, it’s even worse. The test is everything.

You might also, say that it is teacher centered, but in a typical classroom of over fifty students the teacher as a masterful conductor can be a beautiful thing. However, smaller classes should mix it up a bit in technique. Those conductor skills only go so far with a four piece band. I personally couldn’t imagine trying to bring these techniques into my classroom. It’s the exact sort of thing my students want to avoid. Though I admit, I once heard a cheer group cheering about Mendeleev and the periodic table on the NPR show Radiolab. I, now, can’t seem to locate the episode, however I remember desperately wish I could use it to help the student memorize the periodic table. That would be a high standard and the Chinese techniques would be perfect.

Whole brain teaching

We have an old British soldier at our school who has endless techniques for managing the classroom. He’s a master at it. I admire his ability, and I have picked up many ideas from him. However I find that many of this techniques are bordering on teacher centered, I feel are detrimental to the kids in the long run if done in every class.
Since I try to use more project based learning, I feel part of the classroom management should be emergent form the function of the task at hand. Migdol’s group meeting, for example, were orderly both because of moderation from the Migdol and also a common understanding among the students about the task at hand.

In looking at many of the methods on the Whole Brain Teaching, WBT, website, I found many interesting methods. Many of them integrate kinesthetics. In university I took dance for elementary education which integrated dance in other subjects as a method for teaching young children. In practice I’ve found these methods hard to implement with my students. The are strong willed group of high school students. I once tried to get the to have them simulate chemical bonds through dance… a process which resulted in me needing to break up a screaming match between three kids. They had a lot of opinions about how the electrons should be correctly interpreted. Not that WBT is endorses that, but I simply can’t imagine my students embracing many of these ideas.

I feel that the WBT is awesome for management and high standards in any group of students who requires more discipline. This varies by subject and age. It’s great for younger students where is teaches students to think about their actions. It might not be as useful in project based lessons where freedom is more important.

Setting high performance expectations among my students

I have learned the most from Migdol’s project work. I teach chemistry and physics right now. I need to also implement iteration into my projects to promote higher standards. It would help me preform formative feedback and reduce free of failure.

The Chinese memorization technique might be helpful for are certain tasks… maybe I can get them to memorize the periodic table this year. However, I won’t be using them much if at all.

I can’t see myself using many of the WBT techniques with my high school students. But I’m going to look closer at their techniques for group management since I feel I could really improve on that.

There are two other key concepts I will be using to promote high standards. Firstly, growth mindset will clear the way of individual hang up about not being “good enough.” Secondly I’ll push my student to think wider and deeper about problems. This means connecting ideas and going beyond the required course work to seek out understanding and creativity.

Creating High Performance Learning Environments

Creating a Positive Classroom

I work in classrooms where all the students are of significantly different backgrounds from my own. I am a twenty something American of European descent and from a cold mid-western town. My students are a mix of Chinese boys and girls at least ten years younger than me. The classroom is culturally monolithic but diverse. It’s an environment which is sometimes difficult to navigate. In this environment I must create a sense of caring, attempt to be culturally aware, and establish professional relationships.
I have a class starting next week. From the first days and onward I will attempt to establish and maintain a more orderly and positive classroom.
I haven’t had a problem with creating a positive classroom in the past. One of the first courses I took to become a better teacher was Dave Levin’s, founder of Kipp, “Teaching Character and Creating Positive Classrooms” on Coursea. The Kipp model focuses on character building.
A positive classroom establishes the necessary foundation upon which learning can happen. Without a sense of security, it’s difficult for students to reach their cognitive potential. Without positivity, it’s difficult for them to reach their personal potential.
The idea of PERMA from positive psychology embodies why we need positive classrooms. PERMA stand for Positive Emotions, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning and purpose, and Accomplishments. The idea is based around how people preform when they are happy and included in a positive environment. If we can establish PERMA with our kids then we’ll see gains in behavior and performance.
I believe that the Kipp model has a small role to play in every classroom, but, before I go on, I need to address detractors to these ideas. Wet blankets like Jeffrey Aaron Snyder at the New Republic have some real sick in the mud ideas about teaching character trait in the classroom. I have nothing more to say on dull minded views so I simply say here that I disagree. The Kipp character model is valuable in its place.
Kipp’s model mostly consists of establishing seven character traits to aim for and integrating a few them in occasional lessons. These character traits are zest, grit, optimism, self-control, gratitude, social intelligence, and curiosity. By teaching these as achievable objectives we can help instill a growth mindset into the kids.
Strategies for making the model work include modeling and being mindful of micro moments. Modeling good charter traits simplify adds up to striving to be a better me in the presence of the kids. It’s not always easy, but it’s necessary.

“Children have never been very good at listening to their elders, but they have never failed to imitate them.” – James Baldwin

What I mean by micro moments is every small interaction with our kids. To make these moments effective we have to maintain constant mindfulness. With have to mindful of are action and the student. In most people’s negativity bias five good interactions equals one bad interaction, but this goes beyond mere aiming for good interaction. Being mindful of micro moments means striving for meaning and character building at every opportunity with grace.
Being culturally sensitive as a foreign teacher is difficult at times, especially since my mandarin is rudimentary. I can’t pick up on every dialog or interaction which takes place in the classroom. I’m given a certain allowance to make mistakes. But, I have to be vigilant.
One thing I have to play close attention to is preserving each student’s face. Face is king in china anyway you spin it. There have been times I’ve hurt a student’s face and had to repair the relationship. This is hard to do when, at times, you don’t even know what you did or if the student is just in a bad mood that day. But even here, weather I know what I did or not, humans are universally appreciative of caring attention.
Another strategy is setting and stakes low and having an appropriate sense of humor about yourself. By allowing students to shake things off with humor, they can avoid losing face. This strategy works for me, but requires an underlying confidence and bravery to be valuable without weakening my position. I’m not always successful. Be personally and socially mindful or this double edge strategy can cut.
Last, I have to avoid social taboos here. I can’t talk about certain subjects. I try to take opportunities to point out the strengths and great people from their culture. This creates since of respect so I can deliver constructive criticism when I need to be. But I’m never critical of the CCP or their policies.
All these things can lead up to positive relationships, but the relationships require a little more from me. I must be a good leader and give my personal attention to every student. This requires me to learn about each student’s interests. Thank goodness I have few enough students to achieve that. I’m often able to personalize my approach and examples of each student. I can show I care about their individual dreams. And occasionally I provide advice on projects beyond the classroom. This isn’t very difficult for me because I have good emotional intelligence. However I have one major weakness, and I can highlight this by looking at anti-bullying.
I have a difficult time monitoring for bullying. Between my language barrier and abysmal social intelligence I’m lost when I looking for bullying. I have two strategies. First, I watch for negative emotional states following interactions, but I can’t read everybody’s body at all times. I simply lack the perceptual ability to track all these social interactions and beyond physical contact or mean tones, I can’t spot things easily. My second strategy is to communicate with my fellow teachers who are more adept than I am. I check in with them at least every fortnight to hear about what I should lookout for.

Levin, D. (n.d.). Teaching Character and Creating Positive Classrooms. Retrieved August 11, 2015, from

Snyder, J. (2014, May 6). Teaching Kids ‘Grit’ is All the Rage. Here’s What’s Wrong With It. Retrieved August 11, 2015.

Creating a Positive Classroom

Mobile leaning guidelines

Mobile learning is an essential tool in the decentralization of institutional education. Trending ideas such as blended leaning, project based learning, student centered classrooms, and flipped classrooms can all benefit from mobile learning. With a proper understanding of the place for mobile tools, we can develop a sense for when mobile learning will enhance or hinder our work, student learning. We’ll try to pin down a central idea for how it benefits us. From there we can try to construct a simple set of implementation guidelines.
There are many developing areas of education which benefit for mobile learning. In a flipped classroom it’s easy for the student to bring their studies with them anywhere. It would difficult, for example, to bring out your text book on the beach or in the bus. For project based learning mobile devices possess many technologies which enable many opportunities. Properly handled, these will back up blended learning and student centered approaches.
The central idea of mobile devices is decentralization. But that’s not specific enough. There are three avenues for this idea are be realized. Firstly they are devices for convenience of consumption. Secondly devices provide enhanced tools for many activities. Lastly devices provide opportunities for collaboration. These three ways of looking at mobile devices can be imagined as logical guidelines.

If you need fast diversified access to information.
So if your students need access to wide range of content, you can decentralize the delivery. For example, a drama class could have easy access to their lines and collaborative revision on the fly. Students with different learning styles can choose what content delivery works best for them. And in flipped classrooms the content can be accessed from anywhere. Additionally you can have them do some research on devices like finding relevant news stories.

If you have learning goals which can use common mobile device tools.
Mobile devices can use a range of tools like cameras, accelerometers, and GPS. As well, there are many apps which are common to most mobile platforms such as Android and iOS. Such tools can give students independence in project based learning and flipped classrooms.

If you need some collaboration tools.
Being able to instantly share much of the information from the previous two guidelines could be important. You may find social tools to be excellent for working with your students and for them to work together.

When not to use mobile devices.

As Tom Daccord pointed in his article “5 Critical Mistakes Schools Make With iPads (And How To Correct Them)” there are many mistakes that can be made when using mobile learning. (Daccord, 2012) The two most important mistakes to avoid the what and why of mobile learning.
The what is simply that mobile devices are primarily tool and consumption devices. Prior to smart phones most digital content was delivered on devices which were both creative and consumption devices such as laptops and, more so, desktops. The move to mobile devise is technology simply conforming a social structure where most people are consumers and a minority are creators. This only explains why mobile devices are more popular than other computing devices. It’s not to say that they don’t have unique advantages. Have all the advantages we’ve talked about but they, for the most part, are not creative devices.
The why is simply asking yourself if the lesson would benefit from mobile learning. A lesson could conform to the guidelines but still not be optimized when using mobile learning. There are many cases, such as a hands on project, where mobile learning becomes a gimmick. You may have to suffer though a few bad lessons to learn your lesson.

Daccord, T. (2012, September 27). 5 Critical Mistakes Schools Make With iPads (And How To Correct Them). Retrieved July 25, 2015.

Mobile leaning guidelines

ToSday’s technology doesn’t span the whole the 21st century

There are only two true 21st century skills. They are learning and implementing ideas. All technological approaches are auxiliary skills which support the two main 21st century skills. As well, new pedagogies rising to the forefront. They are teaching skills which have likely always been important for the modern era but are just now becoming widely used the in this latest phase of development. So how do we prepare our students for the future? Let me hit you the bad news first.

Fact: Human beings love to predict the future.

Fact: Human beings are not very good at predicting the future. (Dubner, 2011)

It’s my experience that progress is one of the most terribly misunderstood natural systems amongst the general population. Even some of the most famous futurists are pretty terrible at predicting the future. Let’s look at a lecture from Ray Kurzweil in 2005

He correctly identifies the exponential growth of ideas which drives progress. But then he goes on to make some outlandish predictions for 2020 based on what ideas he believe will flourish.

What he fails to grasp is that ideas, more than any other form of information, must compete to spread in an environment. There they will converge and diverge in limitless way with survival based on their benefit to the host. What Kurzweil did was the overvalue his idea. They may be exciting and possible predictions but these ideas are not doing many people very much good right now except for a few elites like himself. He simply puts the overlay of exponential growth onto ideas which aren’t growing so fast.

They may be scientists out their tracking all the ideas and developing more accurate predictions. People perhaps akin to Asimov’s “psychohistorians” (Asimov, 1951). But it’s currently useless to the vast majority of us.

But let’s, if I may use the language of my childhood, “rewind” back to what we do know and Kurzweil and I agree on. Progress it speeding up exponentially. So the only to thinks we can predict for our kids is that they will have to be good learns for their entire lives and they need to be able to act on their new knowledge.

Teaching kid about blogging, social media, mobile apps, and so on are not 21st century skills. They are contemporary skills. Must like the kids of the nineties learned how to use older iterations of information technology. But as educators we have to keep current or we’ll end up as anachronistic this 90’s gem:

Teaching kids the technology of today puts them in a position to progress into the future. It puts them in the place they need to be in order to research, learn, and expand their understanding. It’s an essential tool for acquiring the 21st century skills of learning and actualization. But today’s technology shouldn’t be labeled as 21st century skills because it’s going to change drastically.

What’s the conclusion for 21st century leaning? We’re going to need kids who can adapt!

To achieve this goal we have been seeing changes in popular pedagogies. One model for grouping the goals of these methods is the 4C or “creativity, critical thinking and problem solving, communication, and collaboration.” Not exactly elegant but it serviceably arrives the point.

Let’s make one thing clear, these aren’t new skills. They’ve been around since before recorded history. They fact that they are just now front and center in education is shameful but to be expected. It’s only now, that ideas are moving fast enough that the common person with have to adapt with in their own life time.

Really the 4C is aimed towards students being able to learn and actualize.
creativity, critical thinking and problem solving = learning
communication, and collaboration = actualization

We are just beginning to ditch specialization in favor of cross disciplinary learning. There are many ways we can approach the challenge.

My personal favorite method is project based learning.

  • I can integrate many other subjects into a project.
    • Example: Have the kids read a fictional story about a balloon and have them make a balloon as part of science project.
  • I can scale my use of technology depending on access to it.
    • With or without classroom flipping
    • With or without media limitations
    • With or without student lead research
  • Student can collaborate creatively to form personalized learning experiences.
  • Student can reflect on their work.
    • Reflection works best when students have actually done something.

The reason PBL is an exemplar of 21st century leaning is because it mirrors skills which students will need for the future. Some of these students have always needed such as collaboration and creativity, whether it was widely recognized or not. But it also forces students to learn and actualize their knowledge.

Asimov, I. (1951). Foundation. Doubleday.

Dubner, S. (2011, September 14). New Freakonomics Radio Podcast: The Folly of Prediction. Retrieved July 3, 2015.

ToSday’s technology doesn’t span the whole the 21st century

ELL planning for my programming course

Living in Yunnan province, we see a diverse population of ELL students. Our classroom is divided between two clearly visible groups, those who speak the local Chinese dialect and those who don’t. And of those who don’t there is a diverse range of native dialects and other languages. But first let’s talk about the locals and then move on to the extended group.
I’ll be using the IELTS system to describe our students English level. It’s the system we use at our school which ranges from 1 to 9 in ability.

By locals, I mean the people of the City of Kunming. Chinese has one of the most diverse range of dialects of any language in the world. Each city has has its own dialect and Kunming, being an old city, has a very distinctive one. That said, all of our students can understand and speak the standard dialect as well.
Our classes are all taught in English, but a Chinese teacher is also present in every classroom to assist with comprehension. Our incoming students have never strayed from a IELTS range of 2, intermittent, to 6.5, competent, and averaging at 4.5, limited. This means that we have a very wide range to deal with. Standard Chinese is use is used for any institutional instruction done in Chinese.
Culturally this group is fairly well equipped to deal with classroom situations and make friends readily. While family exceptions range from the school producing Jack Ma to the school being a sort of human storage where the kids stay for most of the day.
The dialect itself is written the same as any other Chinese dialect.

The second group is students who don’t speak the local dialect. The group can be further split into those who merely speak different dialects and those who speak minority languages. I focus on my experience with minority language speakers, in particular a language of Yi which I’m familiar with. They have the additional difficulty of needing to learn English and a new dialect of Chinese.
Firstly this group speaks standard Chinese so some classroom instruction isn’t an issue for them. However they are typically more isolated socially and it takes time for them of integrate. I believe they integrate faster in our English classroom than they would otherwise because our students have the common foe of English to deal with.
Now the Yi people aren’t one people, culture, or language. When the Chinese government started to figure out who was what minority the gave up with the Yi. They lumped a large number of cultures, at least three religions, and three different language families into one group.
The group I’m most familiar with is a small Buddhist group with a population of less than three thousand. They speak an Ancient Burmese dialect with most of the modern vocabulary adapted from standard Chinese. They have now writing system and rely on Chinese for any and all writing.
The culture isn’t discernibly different at the school level from my point western of view and their families also tend to have similar prospectives.

ELL planning for my programming course

A problem or two with UIL’s world wide efforts to spread life long learning

A convoluted and cataract vision

A camera pans through row of students while cheerful music plays. The students are adults attempting to complete their formal high school diploma in slightly undersized school desks. As the camera passes each student they tense up, give a “who the **** are you looking at” glance, or blatantly hide their faces with a sheet of paper. All that while the narrator goes on about the how wonderful the program is for the students.

The video is a from the Jamaican Foundation for Lifelong Learning, JFLL, which I found on the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning’s site, also know as UIL. If you couldn’t tell already, they are a subsection of United Nations Educational, Science and Cultural Organization. Like most UN activities it is awash with statements of intent, declarations, and creatively organized superfluous graphics. In other words the stuff of sweet dreams for bureaucrats and lawyers but a nightmares for anyone who wants to get anything done.

For example Beijing Declaration on Building Learning Cities (UIL, 2013) essential details that everything up to and including building a market utopia is what was need in every community. The main points from this eight page list of ideas are:

Empowering individuals and promoting social cohesion

Enhancing economic development and cultural prosperity

Promoting inclusive learning in the education system

Promoting sustainable development

Revitalizing learning in families and communities

Facilitating learning for and in the workplace

Extending the use of modern learning technologies

Enhancing quality in learning

Fostering a culture of learning throughout life

Strengthening political will and commitment

Improving governance and participation of all stakeholders

Boosting resource mobilization and utilization

So once we solve all the social problems we can think of we finally have an environment for lifelong learning, and, moreover, no one has to take responsibility until such time. Please continue to contribute to building the market, thank you, and have a nice day.

Poor blind beggars

Some may blame this too common combination of high ideals and navel gazing on a sort of disconnected elitism. There may be be a grain of truth to such rhetoric but in the complexities of society you can find many truths without finding causes and systemic complexities. What is certainly contributing to lack of innovation and ambition is a lack of funds and a lack of good examples.

In their 2013 annual report (UIL, 2014) we see sad finances of this global organization. Since the goals of this organization appear to doing everything for everyone, then the 5,614,000 USD, supplied mostly by donation, will work out to be approximately 0.0008 USD per capita globally. Of course their mission is seek out and build connections with existing organizations when fall into the UIL’s scope.

Word vs actions

There is a slight disconnect between the sort of grand vision the organization has and it’s actual activities. Many of the programs with with traditional institutions which provide opportunities for adults to gain literacy, portable skills, and high school diplomas. The has tremendous value for a small, actively goal seeking, segment who think it’s a means to a better life. However, many of these individuals the whole benefit from these programs it’s not about life long learning. It’s about catching up and goal achievement. If learning was so valued why did the students in the JFLL video hide their faces in shame? Learning for them is about achievement and cultural expectations which they have failed in the past. It’s not a growth mind set.

And why must the seek out these opportunities. Why can’t education hunt us down like Pepsi, McDonald’s, and Gieco? I’m not asking for the University of Phoenix model, though it has it’s place. I’m talking about are media at every level promoting great ideal like those of UIL. I’m talking about building a culture, a culture of build on human potentials! Have we lost so much faith in both the individual and the grand project of a more perfect society? I think we have.

My own experience with institutional adult learning

I remember when walked in the door of my home town university at 17. I just wanted to take their placement test but they told me I needed high school diploma. So I went to take the GED but the state told me I needed to take a mandatory two month preparation class. So I spent the next two months with several members of local sex offender registry, ex-cons, and other people generally having a hard time in life. They were actually a pretty kind bunch but it wasn’t exactly a golden gate back into education after my eleven year hiatus. It’s no wonder people won’t see such an opportunity as appealing. However I already knew the value of education.

My mom taught us to always keep learning. We were young she got her two year degree from community college. My earliest memories were of her doing homework late at night on our locally assembled Intel 486DX. I began homeschooling at the age of seven. Learning became much more integrated into my whole life. And during this time I always saw my mom learning new things, researching, and growing. By the time I was a teen she was going to school again for her four year degree. We was come to many lectures with her. And I know we’re suppose to be student centered, but I’m a sucker for a great lecture. I loved listening and learning.

The final step for me was developing a growth mindset while I was in university. I study as many different topics as I could. I took topics I thought I was weak in just to prove to myself I could learn anything. I could have used a bit more direction but such is youth.

This is, however, not a common experience. The many people I have worked and lived along side in small towns and summer jobs often don’t consider learning to be a part of their lives. I feel that they see their narratives a static with a remembered beginning and a projected end. And so how do we instill a growth mindset? We teach it! We embody it! We integrate it into the world!

Where we are going

“We recognise that we live in a complex, fast-changing world where social, economic and political norms are constantly redefined.“(UIL, 2013)

This is certainly more true than ever due to exponential growth of ideas. But the environment is responding, and we doesn’t have to really on the old institutions anymore. Platforms like MOOCs are becoming increasing popular. And the internet is changing how people think about finding new information, hence learning.

And the institutions them selves are learning. Resources such as the excellent work done by the Kipp schools are becoming more widely available. They even offer a course on Coursea on the topic (Coursea, 2015). And it must be embodied honestly and genuinely by the school. Finally integrating the school’s actives into lives and communities can insure that the knowledge and skills aren’t merely compartmentalized. If a school can provide a sense of ability to learn and autonomy to each student’s narrative then it has done its job right.

UIL is an organize with good intentions and many good ideas, obvious or not. However, they have a limited budget and an addiction to working with traditional, cumbersome institutions. If they would only look to the wider world for change, they could be much more effective.


Coursea. (2015). Teaching Character and Creating Positive Classrooms.
Retrieved from

UIL. (2014). Annual Report 2013. Retrieved from UIL


UIL. (2013). Beijing Declaration on Building Learning Cities. Retrieved from UIL website:

A problem or two with UIL’s world wide efforts to spread life long learning